#135: 同性恋在中国

同性恋,指的是同种性别的人之间的恋爱,也就是男人和男人,或者女人和女人之间的恋爱。以前,虽然在中国一直有同性恋者存在,他们却一直没有一个恰当的称呼。“同性恋”这个称呼是从外语(homosexuality)中引进到中文的,它既可以指一种性取向,也可以指一种恋爱行为,还可以也指这种人群。在中国,同性恋人群还有另外一个叫法,就是“同志”。

中国的同性恋人口占中国总人口的3-4%,大约为3900万-5200万人,这相当于一个欧洲国家的总人口。在大约20年前,同性恋在中国还仍然被定为“流氓罪”。特别是在文化大革命期间,同性恋者会被人们当面叫做“流氓”,从而遭受极大的侮辱。不过,这种情况在当今的中国已经不太会出现了。近几年,有一项调查统计显示,大约九成的中国人认为,同性恋在职场上应该享受和其他人一样的待遇。

在一些西方国家,同性恋已经可以合法结婚了。在中国,虽然法律还不允许同性恋者结婚,但一直有学者和维权人士向领导人提出,要在中国实行同性恋婚姻的合法化。虽然在法律上,同性恋婚姻还不被认可,但是在社会生活中,同性恋正在被来越多的中国人所接受。特别是在大城市中,越来越多的同性恋者正在通过他们自己的民间组织,渐渐发出自己的声音。同性恋者的聚会、书籍、电影、艺术节、酒吧,等等,正在形成同性恋自己的文化。也有越来越多的同性恋者,愿意向他们的家人或者其他人表明自己的同性恋身份,这种行为叫做“出柜”。

不过,大多数的同性恋仍然会受到很大的压力。很多同性恋者因为受到父母和社会的压力,不得不和异性结婚,这往往会造成更多的家庭悲剧,对同性恋者和他们异性伴侣都会造成很大的伤害。比如,在中国出现了这样的一个人群,她们是男同性恋者的妻子,被人们叫做“同妻”。和同性恋者结婚,给她们造成了非常大的痛苦。总的来说,从法律到社会的各个方面,要改善同性恋在中国的生活状态,还有很长的路要走。

Homosexualität (同性恋) bezeichnet die gleichgeschlechtliche Liebe zwischen zwei Menschen: Also die Liebe zwischen Mann und Mann oder Frau und Frau. Obwohl es schon immer Homosexuelle in China gegeben hat, gab es für diese Menschen nicht immer eine passende Bezeichnung. Die chinesische Bezeichnung 同性恋 stammt von dem Englischen „homosexuality“ und kann sowohl die sexuelle Orientierung, das sexuelle Verhalten, als auch die Gruppe der Homosexuellen umfassen. In China gibt es für Homosexuelle noch eine weitere Bezeichnung: „Kamerad“ (同志).

In China machen Homosexuelle ungefähr drei bis vier % der Gesamtbevölkerung aus – das sind etwa 39 bis 52 Millionen Personen und damit so viel wie ein mittelgroßes Land Europas. Vor etwa 20 Jahren hat man Homosexualität in China noch als „asoziales Verbrechen“ ( 流氓罪) tituliert. Besonders zur Zeit der Kulturrevolution hat man Homosexuelle größten Erniedrigungen ausgesetzt, indem man sie als „Asoziale“ (流氓) beleidigte. Im heutigen China wird so etwas aber kaum noch passieren. Laut einer Umfrage der letzten Jahre finden etwa neun von zehn Chinesen, dass Homosexuelle am Arbeitsplatz genau so behandelt werden sollen wie alle anderen auch.

In manchen westlichen Ländern können Homosexuelle bereits heiraten. In China ist die Heirat homosexueller Paare zwar noch nicht erlaubt, doch gibt es immer mehr Akademiker und Menschenrechtsaktivisten, die von der politischen Führung eine Legalisierung der Homo-Ehe fordern. Auch wenn die Homo-Ehe gesetzlich noch nicht erlaubt ist, wird die chinesische Gesellschaft gegenüber Homosexuellen immer toleranter. Dies ist besonders in Großstädten der Fall, wo Vereinigungen von Homosexuellen ihren Anliegen mehr und mehr Gehör verschaffen. Über Zusammenkünfte, Literatur, Filme, Kunstveranstaltungen, Bars usw. entsteht derzeit eine eigene Homo-Subkultur. Auch entschließen sich immer mehr Homosexuelle ihrer Familie oder anderen Personen ihre sexuelle Orientierung zu offenbaren – das nennt man in China „aus dem Schrank kommen“ (出柜).

Trotzdem ist die Mehrzahl der Homosexuellen noch immer einem erheblichen Druck ausgesetzt. Wegen des Drucks von Eltern und der Gesellschaft kommen viele Homosexuelle nicht umhin, einen Menschen anderen Geschlechts zu heiraten. Die führt nicht selten zu ausgewachsenen Familiendramen und bereitet den Homosexuellen und deren andersgeschlechtlichen Ehepartnern viel Leid. So entstand in China etwa eine Gruppe von Frauen, die mit schwulen Männern verheiratet sind und als „Schwulengattinen“ (同妻) bezeichnet werden. Für diese Frauen hat die Heirat mit einem Schwulen zu ungemein vielen Problemen geführt. Alles in allem ist es noch ein langer Weg, um in rechtlicher und gesellschaftlicher Hinsicht die Lebensumstände von Homosexuellen zu verbessern.

Niklas Gerberdings (n.gerberding@gmx.de)

Homosexuals in China

Homosexuality refers to love between two people of the same sex, i.e. men with men or women with women. Previously, even though homosexuals have existed all along in China, there was never an appropriate word for them. The word ‘tong xing lian’ is an imported word introduced into Chinese from outside. It can indicate a sexual orientation as well as a sexual behaviour. It can also refer to a group of people. In China, gays as a group have another appellation, namely ‘tongzhi’ (1)

The homosexual population of China accounts for 3-4% of the entire population, roughly 39 million people. This is equivalent to the total population of a European country. Approximately twenty years ago homosexuality was still established as a crime of immoral behaviour. Particularly during the Cultural Revolution, homosexuals were called rogues (2), thus they suffered great humiliation. But these circumstances aren’t very likely to occur in present day China. In recent years a survey has shown that around 90% of Chinese are of the opinion that homosexuals should receive the same treatment at work as others.

In some western countries homosexuals can already legally marry. In China, although the law doesn’t allow homosexual marriage, scholars and civil rights activists have been proposing the legalisation of homosexual marriage. Although same-sex marriages are still not accepted within the law, they are more and more accepted by society. Especially in large cities, by means of their organisations, they are gradually making themselves heard. Due to gay gatherings, books, films, cultural festivals and bars a gay culture is forming. Also, more and more gays are willing to make their identity as homosexuals known to their families or to others. This action is is know as ‘coming out of the closet’.

However, the majority of homosexuals are still under a lot of pressure in China. Due to pressure from their parents and society, many gays have no choice but to marry someone of the opposite sex. This often brings about even more family tragedies and will cause pain to gays and their partners of the opposite sex. In China a particular group of people has sprung up – the wives of homosexual men. They are called ‘tongqi’. (3) Being married to gay men can cause them much suffering. In summary, whether seen from the angle of the law or society there is still a long road ahead to improve the lot of gays in China.

(1) actually the Chinese word for ‘comrade’; the first syllable is the same as the first syllable in the word for homosexual which might account for how this word came into being

(2) the dictionary gives ‘rogue’ which doesn’t really fit here; I suspect this is rather untranslatable – during the Cultural Revolution they probably had all sorts of names they used to call people that aren’t really translatable nowadays…

(3) made up of the ‘homo’ element of ‘homosexual’ and the character for ‘wife’

– Robert Budzul (robert@budzul.com)
– Zak Gray (zak_lives@hotmail.com)

Homoseksualiteit in China

Homoseksualiteit betekent liefde tussen twee mensen van hetzelfde geslacht. Het weze liefde tussen twee mannen of liefde tussen twee vrouwen. Vroeger, hoewel homoseksuelen in China altijd hebben bestaan , hadden ze geen gepaste benaming. Het woord “tongxinglian”is ontleend aan het Engelse woord “homosexuality”.Dit woord kan zowel seksuele geaardheid als liefdesakt betekenen.Maar het verwijst ook naar de groep. In China hebben homoseksuelen ook nog een andere naam, dit is “tongzhi”: “kameraad”.

In China is 3-4% van de bevolking homoseksueel. Dit betekent tussen 39.000.000-52.000.000 mensen, ongeveer evenveel als een land van Europa. Ongeveer twintig jaar geleden werd homoseksualiteit nog bestempeld als
hooliganisme. Vooral tijdens de Culturele Revolutie werden homoseksuelen door de mensen in ‘t gezicht “hooligans” genoemd. Ze waren onderworpen aan enorme beledigingen. Maar zulks gebeurt niet meer in het huidige China.
De laatste jaren tonen de statistieken van een enquête aan dat 90% van de Chinezen denken dat homo’s op de arbeidsmarkt van dezelfde rechten moeten genieten.

In bepaalde Westerse landen kunnen homo’s reeds voor de wet trouwen. In China, hoewel een huwelijk tussen homo’s wettelijk niet toegestaan is, zijn er intellectuelen en verdedigers van de wettelijke rechten (van de mens) die
wettelijk homohuwelijk promoten bij de regeringsleiders. Hoewel homohuwelijk wettelijk niet is toegestaan worden in de gemeenschap de homo’s door de anderen steeds meer geaccepteerd. Dit is vooral het geval in de grootsteden
waar homo’s dankzij niet gouvernementele organisaties geleidelijk aan hun stem laten horen. Dankzij homosamenkomsten, boeken, films, kunstfestivals, bars enz is een homocultuur vorm aan het nemen.Er zijn ook steeds meer homo’s die hun familie of andere mensen hun homoseksualiteit kenbaar willen maken. Dit is wat men noemt “chugui”: zijn seksuele geaardheid uiten.

Nochtans ondergaat het grootste deel van de homo’s nog steeds een heel grote druk. Onder de druk van de ouders en de gemeenschap hebben vele homo’s geen andere keuze dan met iemand van het andere geslacht te trouwen. Dit zal heel dikwijls familiedrama’s veroorzaken en de homo’s en hun partner grote schade toedienen. Bijvoorbeeld, in China ontstond er een groep vrouwen van homo’s. Ze werden “tongnü” genoemd, de vrouwen van de “tongzhi”, de homo’s. Hun huwelijk met een homo bracht hen veel leed en verdriet. Om te resumeren, vanuit wettelijk oogpunt tot sociaal oogpunt moeten de levenscondities van de homo’s verbeteren. Er is nog een lange weg af te leggen.

Maud Thiery

Homosexualidade na China

Homosexualidade, se refere ao amor sentido entre duas pessoas do mesmo sexo, podendo ser entre dois homens ou duas mulheres. No passado, mesmo sempre existindo homosexualidade na China, o termo homosexualidade não possuía um nome próprio. O nome ‘’homosexualidade’’ foi importado da palavra da lingua inglesa ‘’homosexuality’’ e trazida para o chinês. O termo pode tanto representar uma orientação sexual, como um comportamento amoroso. Ainda pode representar um grupo de pessoas homossexuais. Na China, esse grupo de pessoas ainda é conhecido como ‘’camaradas’’.

O número de homossexuais alcança, aproximadamente, o percentual de 3-4% da população chinesa. Isso é equivalente à população de muitos países europeus. Aproximadamente 20 anos atrás na China, a homosexualidade ainda era chamada de crime indecente, especialmente durante a Revolução Cultural. Naquela época, os homossexuais eram chamados de imorais e sofriam muitos insultos. Atualmente, esse tipo de circunstancia não aparece com tanta frequência. Recentemente, uma pesquisa apontou que 90% dos chineses entrevistados pensam que os homossexuais devem receber o mesmo tratamento de heterossexuais no local de trabalho.

Em alguns países ocidentais, homossexuais podem se casar. Na China, embora a lei não permita casamento entre homossexuais, existem estudiosos e ativistas que querem a liberação do casamento entre homossexuais. Também estão surgindo mais e mais homossexuais que estão dispostos a mostrar para seus familiares e outras pessoas sua verdadeira identidade, são conhecidos como os chineses que ‘’saem do armário’’.

Os homossexuais ainda são muito descriminados, sofrem muita pressão tanto de familiares quanto da sociedade, sendo proibidos de se casarem. Isso frequentemente traz muitas tragédias e ferimentos entre famílias. Resumidamente, analisando desde aspectos legais até sociais, o caminho para mudar esse conceito e as circunstancias sobre a homossexualidade na China ainda é muito longo.

Traduzido por:

Tiago Ismael Debald
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Fabio Freitas Regis
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7 Comments

  • This presentation and the Dutch and English translations were really quite good. Your work is really very useful for us learning Chinese.

  • appalasian

    双性恋者 和跨性别的人呢? 他们会不会在中国受到一样的接受?

  • Pinutle

    @Promeneur: 这个意思最早是于90年代末在香港出现的,而之前广泛使用的称谓是“基”(在粤语中“基”与gay发音近似)。据说香港影评人林迈克是最早使用这个意思的人。(据www.infzm.com/content/542和zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/同志_(同性戀),更权威的资料是周华山的著作Tongzhi: Politics of Same-Sex Eroticism in Chinese Societies)

    • Promeneur

      @Pinutle

      原来如此。。。谢谢。

  • Promeneur

    的确还有很长的路要走。我住在中国的时候,我见了不少的已经结婚的同志。

    不孝有三,无后为大。

    这说明,你是个同志的话,你要苦。

    我还不明白“同志”这个词从那个共产主义的意思为什么现在有这个意思。

  • 杰克

    ‘Tongxinglian’ refers to romance between people of the same gender and can describe both love between male and male or female and female. Although homosexuals have always existed in China, in the past there was never an appropriate name for them. The word ‘Tongxinglian’ came into Chinese to from the foreign word ‘homosexuality’ and can describe a gender orientation, a romantic behavior, and a demographic group. In China, homosexuals are also referred to in another way – ‘comrades.’
    Homosexuals make up between three to four percent of China’s total population, which is approximately thirty-nine to fifty million people. This is comparable to the population of a European country. Over the last twenty odd years, homosexuality was even classified in China as ‘a crime of hooliganism.’ This was particularly the case during the Cultural Revolution, which saw homosexuals dubbed ‘rogues’ and subjected to severe humiliation for their orientation. Even so, such behaviour is already a rarity in modern China, and in recent years a survey revealed that roughly ninety percent of Chinese believe that homosexuals should enjoy the same treatment and salary in the workplace as everyone else.
    In several Western countries, homosexuals can already legally marry one another. In China, although same-sex marriages are not allowed under the law, academics and civil rights activists are constantly pointing out the need for the Chinese leadership to implement same-sex marriage equality. Despite same-sex marriage having no legitimacy under Chinese law, Chinese people are becoming increasingly accepting of homosexuality as being a part of society. The cities in particular are places where more and more homosexuals can organize and gradually find their own voice. Homosexual culture is expressed through gatherings, literature, movies, art festivals, gay bars, and more. Furthermore, homosexuals have become increasingly willing to reveal their identities as homosexuals to their families and others, an action which is known as ‘coming out of the closet.’
    Nevertheless, the vast majority of homosexuals continue to live under immense pressure. Many homosexuals, under pressure from their parents and society at large, have no choice but to marry a member of the opposite sex. This inevitably causes more family tragedy, as the homosexuals and their opposite gender spouses are both hurt. For example, in China when this happens to the wives of homosexual men they are called ‘tongqi.’ Marrying homosexuals brings these women much suffering. To sum up, from multiple angles within the law and society, the circumstances of homosexuals in China needs to be improved, and there is still a long road that needs to be walked.

  • neomao

    这里大概有错误:
    被来越多的中国人