#141: 高考的记忆

每年六月的时候,我都会梦见高考,有时候梦见自己忘了带准考证,有时候梦见自己忘了带笔,梦中的我很着急,一直哭,然后就醒了。和老同学聊起来,发现不止我一个人梦见高考。对于我们来说,高考是无法磨灭的青春记忆的一部分。

来美国之后,我在一所私立女子高中教汉语,很多学生在为申请大学做准备,偶尔她们也会问我,中国学生怎样才能进入大学,要准备哪些材料。有一次,我就专门准备了一节课。和她们谈谈中国的高考。

在中国,小学一般是五年或者六年,中学分为初中三年和高中三年。高考常常在高三的六月举行,每年只有一次。错过了,或者说失败了,只能明年六月再来。所以高中生们都把它称作“黑色的六月”。

和美国孩子不一样,在中国考大学不需要推荐信,也不需要申请信。大部分只需要高考成绩。在这种压力下,很多学校都让老师们在高一、高二的时候把高考要考的东西全部教完。高三一年,老师们主要就组织学生复习,模拟考试。

因为高考竞争激烈,所以很多学生除了在学校努力学习,还在校外读补习班。有一部电影反映了高考学生、老师们的生活状态,感兴趣的朋友们可以找来看看:《青春派》。YouTube上就能找到。

如果有一些特长,比如美术、音乐、舞蹈、乐器、体育等等,就可以稍微轻松一些,大学对他们的高考成绩要求相对低一些。

这两年,中国的高考也在改革,几个大学联合起来,提前招生,面试等等。少数优秀学生可以走这条路,这些学生一般需要校长的推荐信。

在中国,如果你有北京户口,考北京大学、清华大学,就会比其他地方的人考这些大学容易一些。因为北京的大学在北京当地招的学生人数更多,这样录取的分数也就更低。所以,来自不同的省的学生考同一所大学的难度是不一样的。

这也是为什么很多人一定要去北京上海这些地方工作、买房子,是为了拿这些地方的户口,为了孩子将来能接受更好的教育。

从这个角度来看,高考的确有一些不公平的地方。但是,对于很多普通人来说,高考已经是比较公平的了,只要高考考得好,无论你出生在什么样的家庭,都有机会进入中国一流的大学学习。

#141: Memories of the ‘gaokao’

Every year in June I always dream about the ‘gaokao’. Sometimes I dream that I forgot to take my (certificate giving me) permission to take the ‘gaokao’, sometimes I dream about forgetting to take a pen. The ‘me’ in the dream is always anxious, always crying… then I wake up. If I chat with former fellow students I discover that it’s not just me that dreams about the ‘gaokao’. For us, the ‘gaokao’ is a part of our youth that can’t be wiped from our memory.

After coming to America I taught Chinese at a private girls’ high school. Many students there make preparations for applying for university. Sometimes they would ask me, what Chinese students have to do to enter university, what material do they have to prepare? Once I prepared a special lesson in which I discussed the Chinese ‘gaokao’ with them.

In China primary school generally is five or six years while high school is divided into two – three years junior high school and three years senior high school. ‘Gaokao’ is always held only once a year in June of the third year of senior high. If you miss it, in other words, fail, you have no choice but to do it again the following year. So junior high school students call it ‘black June’.
Unlike American children, in China, to take a university entrance examination, one doesn’t need a letter of recommendation nor does one need to write an application; in general one just needs success in the ‘gaokao’. Under this sort of pressure, many students in first and second year of senior high school have their teachers go over what will be examined in the ‘gaokao’ in full. Then in third year the teacher will mainly organise the students’ study and give them mock exams.

Because the competition for the ‘kaokao’ is so intense, many students not only study hard at school but they study at cram schools. There is a movie which reflects the situation of students and teachers. Anyone out there interested can find the film by searching for ‘青春派’. It can be found on YouTube. Those with a special ability, such as in art, music, dance, a musical instrument or sport can relax a little as the ‘gaokao’ requirements for these students at university is a little lower.

Over the last few years China’s ‘gaokao’ has been going through a change and several universities together have enrolled students in advance and given interviews. A small number of outstanding students can follow this path but in general these students need a letter or recommendation from their headmaster.

For those with a Beijing ‘hukou’, it’s slightly easier for them to gain admittance to Peking University or Qinghua University than those students from other areas. Because Beijing universities recruit higher numbers of students from the local area, the test score for admission is lower for them. So the difficulty of entering the same university is not the same for students coming from different provinces.

This is the reason many people absolutely want to move to Shanghai or Beijing to work and buy an apartment and thus receive the ‘hukou’ for these places. So that their children in the future will receive a better education.

Looking at it from this point of view the ‘gaokao’ does indeed have some aspects which aren’t fair. But for many ordinary people the ‘gaokao’ is relatively fair. You only need to perform well in the ‘gaokao’ and it doesn’t matter into what sort of family you were born, you have the opportunity to study at China’s top universities.

Robert Budzul (robert@budzul.com)
Zak Gray (zak_lives@hotmail.com)

#141 Terugdenkend aan de Gaokao

Elk jaar, in juni, droom ik van de gaokao, het nationale toelatingsexamen tot de universiteit.
Soms droom ik dat ik mijn toelatingsformulier ben vergeten, soms droom ik dat mijn balpen ben vergeten. In mijn droom ben ik heel zenuwachtig, ik hou niet op met wenen, nadien schiet ik plots wakker. Als ik daarover met vroegere medestudenten praat, stel ik vast dat ik niet de enige ben die van de gaokao droom. Voor ons is de gaokao een deel van onze jeugdherinneringen dat niet kan worden uitgewist.

In de Verenigde Staten, gaf ik Chinese les in het hoger secundair onderwijs, in een privé meisjeschool. Heel veel studentes bereidden een aanvraag voor tot toelating aan de universiteit. Soms vroegen ze mij op welke manier de Chinese studenten aan de unief werden toegelaten, welke stof ze moesten voorbereiden. Een keer gaf (bereidde) ik een specialise les. En sprak toen over de Chinese gaokao.

In China beslaat de lagere school vijf tot zes jaar, de middelbare school wordt onderverdeeld in drie jaar lager secundair onderwijs en drie jaar hoger secundair onderwijs.
De gaokao wordt meestal in juni van het derde jaar hoger secundair onderwijs afgelegd, (dit grijpt)elk jaar slechts éénmaal (plaats).
Indien je het examen gemist hebt of je bent gezakt kan je het examen slechts het jaar daarop, in juni, afleggen. Dus noemen de studenten van het hoger secundair onderwijs het “de zwarte maand juni”.

Het is (dus helemaal) niet hetzelfde als bij de Amerikaanse studenten. In China hoeven de studenten geen aanbevelingsbrief (voor te leggen), en ook geen aanvraagformulier. Het komt er gewoon op aan een succesvolle gaokao af te leggen.
Vanwege die enorme druk vragen vele scholen aan de lesgevers om in het eerste en het tweede jaar (van het hoger secundair onderwijs) alle onderwerpen van de gaokao af te handelen. In het derde jaar bestaat de voornaamste taak van de lesgevers erin de organisatie van de herhaling van de stof en de simulatie van het examen aan te reiken.
Aangezien de gaokao competitie zo hevig is, gaan veel studenten, buiten op school ijverig studeren, (nog) na de school privéles volgen.
Een film geeft de levensomstandigheden van de gaokao student en de lesgevers weer. Zij die interesse hebben, kunnen kijken naar: “De jeugdcaste“. Dat vind je op You Tube.

Voor het geval er enkele onderwerpen zijn (waarin je sterk bent), bijvoorbeeld schone kunsten, muziek, dans, muziekinstrumenten, lichamelijke opvoeding enz, kan je wat ontspannen. De unief is (dan) wat je punten betreft, wat minder eisend.

Deze twee laatste jaren heeft de gaokao een reform ondergaan: enkele universiteiten zijn gaan samenwerken, de aanwerving van de studenten is vervroegd, er worden interviews afgenomen enz.Een klein aantal uitmuntende studenten kan deze weg bewandelen, deze studenten moeten (meestal) een aanbevelingsbrief van de schooldirecteur te krijgen.
Indien je in China in het bezit bent van een woonvergunning voor Beijing, zal je examen voor de Beijing Universiteit en voor de Qinghua Universiteit wat gemakkelijker verlopen dan voor hen die uit een andere regio komen.*1
Dat de uniefs van Beijing een steeds groter aantal studenten uit Beijing recruteren, heeft voor gevolg dat het examencijfer van hen die toegelaten worden steeds lager ligt.*2
 Bijgevolg is de moeilijkheidsgraad (van de gaokao) voor studenten die uit een andere provincie komen dan die waar de universiteit is gelegen, niet dezelfde.

Dat is de reden waarom vele mensen naar Beijing en Shanghai gaan werken, er een huis kopen, om er een hukou te bemachtigen zodat hun kinderen in de toekomst van een beter onderwijs kunnen genieten.

Vanuit dit oogpunt bekeken heeft de gaokao inderdaad enkele unfaire kanten. Maar in het oog van vele gewone mensen, is de gaokao reeds redelijk fair: het komt er gewoon op aan je gaokao heel goed af te leggen.
Uit welk gezin men ook moge komen, iedereen heeft de gelegenheid aan een eerste klas unief te studeren.

Noten van de vertaler:
*1 de Beijing uniefs verkiezen Beijingers aan hun instelling toe te laten omdat ze niet in de campus leven. De uniefs moeten dan ook niet instaan voor kinderopvang.
*2 het hoogste aantal punten (full marks) ligt voor de Beijingers op 520, voor de anderen ligt dat op 620

Maud Thiery (maud.thiery@scarlet.be)

#141: Memória do vestibular

Todos os anos, em junho, eu sonho sobre meu vestibular, sonho que esqueci de trazer o documento de inscrição, canetas. Durante o sonho sempre estou muito nervoso, choro, até acordar. Conversando sobre o assunto com um amigo, descobri que não é somente eu que tenho esses tipos de sonhos. Para nós, o vestibular é um período ao qual jamais esqueceremos.

Nos Estados Unidos, eu estudei o ensino médio em uma escola privada para mulheres. Naquela época, muitos estudantes estavam se inscrevendo para o vestibular e me perguntaram como era o processo de entrada de estudantes nas universidades Chinesas. Então, uma vez ministrei uma aula especialmente sobre o assunto.

Na China, a escola primária geralmente dura por cinco ou seis anos, enquanto que o ensino médio se divide em três de anos de ensino júnior e três anos de ensino médio propriamente. O vestibular, na China, somente é realizado uma vez por ano, em Junho. Se não for aprovado, então é preciso esperar até o próximo ano para realizar novamente, por isso para os estudantes, o mês de Junho também é conhecido como ‘o mês negro’.

Os documentos necessário na China e nos Estados Unidos também não são os mesmos, nos Estados Unidos é necessário uma carta de recomendação e uma carta de aplicação, além da aprovação no teste, enquanto que na China você só precisa fazer o teste. Devida a toda a pressão, durante o primeiro e segundo ano do ensino médio, muitas escolas autorizam os professores a focarem no vestibular somente. E no terceiro ano, os professores revisam e aplicam testes simulados.

Devido a toda a competição, muitos estudantes além do tempo de estudo na escola, ainda vão a cursinhos pré-vestibular. Tem um filme chamado ‘青(qing)春(chung)派(pai)‘ que fala sobre os estudantes se preparando para o vestibular e a situação vivida pelos professores. Se tiverem interesse em assistir, podem procurar na internet, no Youtube também é possível de encontrar.

Mas para aqueles que possuem vocações para artes, musica, dança, instrumentos musicais, esportes, etc, podem ficar mais tranquilos, a competitividade é um pouco menor.

Nos últimos dois anos o processo de aceitação nas universidades chinesas esta mudando. Algumas universidades se uniram em um projeto que com antecedência já possibilita a alguns estudantes a entrada nessas universidades. Alguns estudantes talentos apenas precisam de uma carta de recomendação do direto de suas escolas para aplicarem.

Outra característica é que se você tem permissão de residência para Pequim e deseja ingressar em uma das universidades locais, Universidade de Pequim ou Universidade de Qing Hua, por exemplo, você tem algumas vantagens do que estudantes vindo de outros locais da China. Isso porque a demanda de estudantes indo para Pequim é muito grande e as vagas são muito poucas, então, as notas exigidas para estudantes vindo de outras cidades é maior.

Isso tudo tem relação com o crescente número de pessoas indo morar em Pequim ou Shanghai, cidades que apresentam condições de vida muito boas, principalmente para as famílias com crianças, onde essas podem receber um elevado nível de educação.

Vendo desse ângulo, para alguns estudantes pode não ser tão justo, mas, para outros, é tudo relacionado com o quão bem você vai na prova, se estudar e obter bons resultados, você poderá ir para uma boa universidade, inclusive em Pequim ou Shanghai mesmo não sendo residente de Pequim ou Shanghai.

Traduzido por:

Tiago Ismael Debald
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Fabio Freitas Regis
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19 Comments

  • Karen T.

    这篇文章很有趣,让外国人对中国的教育系统有初步了解。。。推荐的这部电影也蛮好看~
    最近刚好在找有关中西教育不同的文章,看了你们另外两篇:中式教育和中国的教育系统。不知道还有没有此类的文章呢?

    • #152 户口也是和教育有关的,你可以点击文章下面的标签(tag)“教育”,就可以看到更多关于教育的文章。

  • Antonella Euforbio

    一部电影反应。。。我觉得应该是一部电影反映, 对不对?

    • 是的,谢谢你指出文中的错误,我马上改过来。

  • Tom

    I would like to thank Jessie Langfelder for providing an English translation for this article. Indeed I would like to thank all of the translators (especially the English language translators) who have contributed their time to help the learners on this site. For many of us who do not read characters, it is essential that there is an English translation. Thanks again…

  • T.G.

    这个文章也讨论《户口》的系统,既然那种系统对西方人陌生,如果你们能发表相关户口的文章一定对我们很有意思。例如,可以不可以改变户口的城市、省,搬家其他的省难不难,如果难,中国西部的工人怎么办在东部的工厂工作等等。你想可能吗?

    • 最新一期的播客,就是《户口》:http://www.slow-chinese.com/podcast/152-hu-kou/

  • Tim Stout

    Wondering about the grammar of one of the sentences. It is written: 和老同学聊起来,发现不止我一个人梦见高考; but I wonder if it should be 和老同学聊起来,发现不只我…… If 不止我 is correct, could you please elaborate on its meaning/use? Thank you, and I love your website!!!

    • “不止”在文章中指的是数量上。不止我一个人梦见高考:还有别人(好几个人)也梦见了高考。“不止”常常和数字一起用,比如:我不止一次梦见高考。也就是,我梦见了高考好多次,一次以上。
      “不止”还有一个意思是:不停止。比如:血流不止,血一直流,停不下来。
      “不只”和“不但”有点类似,常常后面还有一个词语一起用,比如“不只……还……”:她不只是我的老同学,还是我高中时的好朋友。我不只学中文,还看中国电影,听慢速中文播客,了解中国文化。

  • Jessie Langfelder

    高考的记忆
    Recalling Gāokǎo (China's University Entrance Exam)

    每年六月的时候,
    Every year in June
    我都会梦见高考,
    I always end up dreaming about Gāokǎo
    有时候梦见自己忘了带准考證,
    sometimes I dream that I forget to bring the exam admission ticket (identification card)
    有时候梦见自己忘了带笔,
    sometimes I dream that I forget to bring a pen
    梦中的我很著急,
    in the dream, I am anxious
    一直哭,
    I keep crying
    然後就醒了。
    and then I wake up
    和老同学聊起来,
    When I discuss this with ex-classmates
    发现不止我一个人梦见高考。
    I discover that I am not the only one who dreams about Gāokǎo
    对於我们来说,高考是无法磨灭的青春记忆的一部分。
    To us, Gāokǎo is a part our youth that cannot be erased from our memory

    来美国之後,我在一所私立女子高中教汉语,
    After coming to the United States, I worked in a girls' private high school teaching Mandarin
    很多学生在为申请大学做準备,
    many students were making preparations in order to apply to universities
    偶尔她们也会问我,
    occasionally, they would ask me
    中国学生怎样才能进入大学,
    In China, how do students enter into universities
    要準备哪些材料。
    what kind of of materials do they need prepare
    有一次,我就专门準备了一节课。
    One time, I especially prepared a lesson
    和她们谈谈中国的高考。
    to discuss with them China's Gāokǎo

    在中国,小学一般是五年或者六年,
    In China, elementary school is generally five or six years
    中学分为初中叁年和高中叁年。
    middle school is split into 3 years of junior-high (school) and 3 years of high (school)
    高考常常在高叁的六月举行,
    Gāokǎo mostly takes place in June, in the third year of high school
    每年只有一次。
    it takes place only once a year
    错过了,或者说失败了,
    If you miss it (the exam) or fail it
    只能明年六月再来。
    you can only wait until June of next year to try again
    所以高中生们都把它称作“黑色的六月”。
    So high school students call it "black June"

    和美国孩子不一样,
    This is different from kids in the US
    在中国考大学不需要推荐信,
    In China, recommendation letters are not required when applying to universities
    也不需要申请信。
    also application forms are not required
    大部分只需要高考成绩。
    For most part, only Gāokǎo scores are required
    在这种压力下,
    under this kind of pressure
    很多学校都让老师们在高一、高二
    many school will allow teachers, during the first and second year of high school
    的时候把高考要考的东西全部教完。
    to finish teaching all lessons that the Gāokǎo will test on
    高叁一年,老师们主要就组织学生复习,模拟考试。
    on the the third year of high school, the teachers will mainly organize student review sessions, and practice mock exams

    因为高考竞争激烈,
    Because Gāokǎo's competition is intense
    所以很多学生除了在学校努力学习,
    many students, other than diligently studying at school
    还在校外读补习班。
    will also study in tutor centers outside of school
    有一部电影反应了高考学生、老师们的生活状态,
    There is a movie that portrays the lives and situations of Gāokǎo students and teachers
    感兴趣的朋友们可以找来看看:《青春派》。
    if interested, you can find it and and watch it: QīngChūn Pài
    YouTube上就能找到。
    You can find it on YouTube

    如果有一些特长,
    If some (students) have special talents
    比如美术、音乐、舞蹈、乐器、体育等等,
    for example in, fine arts, music, dance, musical instruments, sports, etc…
    就可以稍微轻松一些,
    they can be slightly more relaxed
    大学对他们的高考成绩要求相对低一些。
    Universities requirement for their Gāokǎo scores are somewhat lower

    这两年,中国的高考也在改革,
    These couple of years, China's Gāokǎo is also going through changes
    几个大学联合起来,
    a few universities have joined together
    提前招生,面试等等。
    to recruit students earlier, interview them (earlier), etc…
    少数优秀学生可以走这条路,
    A small number of exceptional students can take this path
    这些学生一般需要校长的推荐信。
    generally these students need a recommendation letter from their school principal

    在中国,如果你有北京户口,
    In China, if you have a Beijing residence permit (ie… if you are a resident of Beijing)
    考北京大学、清华大学,就会比其他地方的人考这些大学容易一些。
    it is somewhat easier to apply for Peking University and Qinghua University than if you are from elsewhere
    因为北京的大学在北京当地招的学生人数更多,
    because Peking University enrolls more more local Beijing students
    这样录取的分数也就更低。
    In this regard, the (test) scores to enroll are also lower
    所以,来自不同的省的学生考同一所大学的难度是不一样的。
    therefore students who come from different provinces, testing into the same university, experience a different degree of difficulty
    这也是为什麽很多人一定要去北京上海这些地方工作、买房子,
    This is also why many people must go to places, such as Beijing and Shanghai, to work and buy homes
    是为了拿这些地方的户口,
    it is in order to obtain a residence permit for these places
    为了孩子将来能接受更好的教育。
    it is so that their child(ren) may receive a better education

    从这个角度来看,
    From this point of few
    高考的确有一些不公平的地方。
    Gāokǎo is indeed unfair in some ways
    但是,对於很多普通人来说,
    however, to many regular citizens
    高考已经是比较公平的了,
    Gāokǎo is already more fair (than other systems)
    只要高考考得好,
    you only need to test well in Gāokǎo
    无论你出生在什麽样的家庭,
    no matter what kind of family you are born into
    都有机会进入中国一流的大学学习。
    all have a chance to enter China's top-ranking universities to study

    Translated by Jessie Langfelder

  • Andrew

    我看完《青春派》。我懂了高考非常辛苦。中国的老师,父母都像虎子。佩服你们。

    • 电影毕竟是电影啦,其实我们大部分高中生都没有电影中那样的毕业典礼。电影反映了一部分现实。

  • Hristiyan 旭尧

    我觉得中国学生的压力很大。我是保加利亚人,对保加利亚学生来说,我国家的高考不如中国高考难。考试的时候万一你失败,几个月以后你再有机会考。我来中国以后才发现中国学生这么辛苦。

    • 是的,美国的SAT考试也是一年可以考多次。中国人多,竞争也更激烈。

  • Andrew

    哈哈,我也有时候梦见学生时代。我觉得无论国家大家都做那样的梦。

    谢谢你们,又给我们写有兴趣的文章!

    • 哈哈!梦见考试是学生时代的后遗症。