#30: 中国的教育系统

今天我简单地介绍一下中国的教育系统。中国的教育系统由四个部分组成:基础教育、高等教育、职业技术教育和成人教育。

中国的儿童3岁进入幼儿园,满6岁开始上小学。小学要上6年。小学毕业后是中学。中学分为初级中学和高级中学,简称初中和高中。它们都要上3年。小学和初中属于义务教育。中国法律规定,每个人都要完成义务教育。在中国大部分地区,义务教育是免费的。为了简便,人们把初中一年级叫做初一,二年级叫做初二,三年级叫做初三。以此类推,高中是高一、高二、高三;大学是大一、大二、大三……但是很奇怪的是,人们从来不会说小一、小二、小三……一般来说,高中生要决定主要学习文科还是理科。文科包括政治、地理和历史;理科包括物理、化学和生物。另外,语文、数学和英语是所有高中生都要学习的课程。

小学的选择一般按照家庭地址:家住在哪里,就到哪里的小学上学。初中也差不多。但高中和大学就不一样了。人们都想去比较好的高中上学,所以就要参加中考。同样的道理,上大学前要参加高考。高考的全称是普通高等学校招生考试。高考一般在每年6月份举行。这个时候,高考就是全社会的热点话题,因为高考关系到一个学生的未来发展,家长都很关心,学生也都为此努力准备。高考的主要考试科目有语文、数学、英语,还有文科或者理科的综合考试。高考题目一般不是全国统一的。高考的总成绩怎么样,决定了学生能申请怎么样的大学。申请大学是统一进行的,叫做填报志愿。由于中国学生很多,大学录取的人数又有限,所以学生经常要填报好几所大学。参加高考和填报志愿是中学生最头疼的事情,竞争很激烈,难度也不小。

大学分为专科大学和本科大学。专科大学教学生专业知识,学制一般是3年;本科大学是综合大学,学生毕业后获得学士学位。本科大学比专科大学的录取条件高,它的学制一般是4年,也有一些专业的学制是5年,如医学和工程专业。在学士学位的后面还有硕士、博士等学位。一般硕士要念2-3年,博士要念3年。对于已经工作的人来说,可以选择通过成人大学继续学习。也有一些学生,初中或高中毕业后,马上就想学习专业知识,开始工作,他们就可以进入职业技术学校。

中国的学校大部分是属于国家的,叫做公立学校,和它相对的是私立学校。中国的公立学校占大部分。住在学校的学生叫做住校生,住在家里的叫做走读生。上大学后,很多年轻人要离开家乡,到很远的城市上大学,所以每年假期,交通系统都要承受不小的压力。

 

16 Comments

  • This was a wonderful audio for practicing and, in addition, not overly difficult as far as the characters and sentences are concerned.

  • Laura from California

    I love this. I am at an advanced beginning level so it's too difficult for me to understand without a translation, but I am listening over and over in the hopes that it will help improve my Chinese. Do you have any of these at a lower lever?

    • 希茜 Xixi
      希茜

      Hey Laura! I happened to see your comment today. Thanks so much for supporting our website. I really admire your persistence for listening over and over. Right now we don't have articles at a lower level, because it's very hard to talk about those topics with simple words. We'll try to prepare something for the beginners in the future. And I do hope that you could understand more and more day by day. Good luck!

      • Laura from California

        Hi Xixi. I was listening to this today and then started reading the comments. The first person's comments were just how I was feeling AND she has the same name as me. Then I saw she was from California and realized I had written this comment myself last year! I am an English teacher and taught at Jiangnan university in China last summer. This summer I taught at an elementary school near Jiangyin. This summer I also visited a wetland area near Hangzhou named Xixi! I still am at only a high beginner level though so if you can put up some lower level readings that would be great.

  • 杜亚伦

    Great site for getting some listening practice. Really helping me get confidence in listening to some more specialised topics and not the normal day-to-day stuff.

    Throw some more advanced stuff up if you can!

    Love it

    Cheers

  • thanhtrung

    非常感谢,很有意思:)

    • Stay inmarfotive, San Diego, yeah boy!

  • Very good site for learners like me. One comment I like to make is for the person reading the text to be careful of all sounds ending with the ‘g’ sound. The reader leaves out the ending ‘g’ sound which is incorrect.
    Is it wan chen or wan cheng (for example.

    • I have to say you have really reached a high level of Chinese, what you said is right, I'm from the south and my Putonghua is not so perfect, most of us don't really care about the "g" problem, ignoring it doesn't affect communication.
      However, thanks for your kind reminding, I'll make it better!
      Xinyu

  • ardi

    this site is great ….i love to be here …..it makes me feel studying chinese is not dificult any more.

  • 梅明紫

    你好!

    大家所知世界足球杯正在南非举行,因此我希望你做个涉及到中国国足的课程!

    谢了,呵呵~~

    • 你好,

      多谢你的建议,我最近就会写一篇关于中国足球的文章。

      昕煜

  • 孟乐岚

    希望你以后能介绍一下中国特殊教育的情况。 谢谢!

    • 非常乐意!请期待吧~

  • Thank you very much! Still tough for me though, but I like your podcasts.

  • Per

    Thank you so much for this resource!