#150: 惡搞的尺度

“惡搞”,最開始的意思是惡意的搞笑。現在的意思,是改變原來作品的風格,使它變得搞笑或者具有諷刺效果。

前不久,在東方衛視的一個節目中,喜劇演員賈玲對中國民族女英雄花木蘭進行惡搞,把她的形象變成一個愛吃燒雞、沒有志向,而且很膽小怕死的傻大姐。節目播出以後,引來很多罵聲。很多觀眾認為,這個節目歪曲了木蘭的形象,也破壞了中華民族的文化,賈玲和節目工作人員都應該為這個錯誤道歉。終於,賈玲在微博上道了歉,表示自己的節目“不合適,違反了大眾的審美”。但同時,她的道歉又引起了另一部分人的不滿。他們認為,喜劇這門藝術就應該允許惡搞。惡搞體現了娛樂精神,賈玲不應該道歉。

或許,賈玲這件事還算小。“惡搞”引起的大事件其實還真不少。大家都不會忘記,2015年1月7號發生在法國巴黎的悲劇。恐怖分子襲擊了法國漫畫雜誌《查理周刊》的總部,殺死了很多雜誌工作人員。原因則是《查理周刊》惡搞了伊斯蘭教先知穆罕默德。

正所謂,公說公有理,婆說婆有理。惡搞的尺度到底應該在哪裡?惡搞到底需不需要底線?對此,你怎麼看?

#150: A Yardstick for ‘Egao’

The original meaning of ‘egao’ was a malicious poking of fun. The current meaning is to change the original style of a work to turn it into something with a witty or satirical effect.

Not long ago, on a program on Dragon TV’, the comedian Jia Ling performed an ‘egao’ (1) against the Chinese national hero – Hua Mulan. She turned her character into that of a silly girl that liked to eat fried chicken, had no ambition, and on top of that was cowardly and afraid to die. After the program was broadcast, it received much condemnation. Many viewers thought that the program misrepresented Hua Mulan’s image, damaged Chinese culture and they thought that Jia Ling and those working on the program should apologize for this mistake. In the end Jia Ling apologized on weibo, stating her program was “inappropriate, and had violated the aesthetic sense of the public”. But, at the same time her apology also led to dissatisfaction among a different group of people which believes (5) that the artform of comedy should permit ‘egao’. ‘Egao’ embodies the vitality of entertainment and Jia Ling should not have to (7) apologize.

This incident with Jia Ling can perhaps be regarded as minor. But actually there is an incident caused by ‘egao’ which is by no means small. No one is likely to forget the tragedy which occurred in Paris on the 7th of January, 2015. Terrorists attacked the head office of the French magazine (6) Charlie Hebdo killing (8) many of the magazine’s staff members. The reason was Charlie Hebdo’s ‘egao’ (9) on Islam’s prophet Mohammad.

Just as they say (10), both parties claim to be in the right. When all is said and done, what is the yardstick of ‘egao’? What’s your view on this?

==================================

1. Yes, really awkward and judging by the second last paragraph ‘egao’ could be translated by ‘satire’ which would also be a verb and really handy for the translation of this sentence. I’ve kept ‘egao’ because there is another word for ‘satire’… and the main purpose of the translation is to help anyone having trouble with the Chinese.

2. 中國民族女英雄: I had trouble with this as I initially read it as 中國民族 – 女英雄. It turns out that it’s more like 中國-民族女英雄, with 民族英雄 going together.

3. 傻大姐: I suppose everyone has got the feel for 大姐… but 傻大姐 also seem to go together with its own tinge of meaning.

4. 中華民族: I’ve translated this just with ‘Chinese’. Anything else becomes too awkward. ‘Chinese national’ seems to go with ‘pride’.

5. I just have to comment on this. I can’t decide whether it should be ‘who’ or ‘which’… I know that often the plural is used here more and more. Indeed if I used ‘who’ I think I’d have to use the plural, even though it’s a singular noun – ‘group’.

6. 漫畫雜誌: I can’t bring myself to write ‘cartoon magazine’… ‘Comic’? Hardly!

7. 不應該: Interesting one. At first it looks like ‘should not apologise’ will do. But I suspect that would be 應該不. This seems similar to the problem of ‘I must do that’, ‘I must not do that’ and ‘I do not must do that’…

8. I think it’s worth taking note of the original here. I suspect that my translation is pretty accurate yet I don’t think this construction with ‘… ing’ is taught in many grammar books from the PRC. I for one will try to make use of this Chinese construction. It looks really easy but so often we see a complicated English construction and try to turn it into something really complicated in Chinese. In this case the Chinese equivalent is pretty straight-forward.

9. Yes, ‘satire’ fits but I left ‘egao’ for consistency.

10. 正所謂: this seems to be used to introduce a saying or ‘chengyu’. As the English isn’t actually a proverb, the translation into English of 正所謂 doesn’t really make sense.

11. 到底: is this the word that I said last essay will just about always occur if you’re making an argument well?

Robert Budzul robert@budzul.com

#150: Criteria voor satires

De originele betekenis van “egao”, letterlijk parodie, was grappen maken met slechte bedoelingen. Maar vandaag houdt het begrip in dat een oorspronkelijk werk zo wordt veranderd dat een grappig of satirisch effect wordt bekomen.

Onlangs, tijdens een programma van Dongfang Weishi (TV satelliet van het Oosten), maakte de comedienne Jia Ling een satire op China’s heldin Hua Mulan, waarbij ze haar beeld veranderde in dat van een vrouw die verzot is op geroosterde kip, een vrouw zonder ambitie, een laffe stupide oudere zus die bang is voor de dood. Na de uitzending van het programma lokte dit (bij het publiek) veel beledigingen uit. Veel kijkers vonden dat dit programma Mulans figuur onder een vals licht bracht en de cultuur van het Chinese volk ondermijnde.

Jia Ling en de makers van het programma moesten excuses aanbieden voor deze fout. Uiteindelijk bood Jia Ling haar excuses aan op Weibo, ze schreef dat het programma “ongepast was en de schoonheidswaardering (van het volk) schendde”. Maar meteen maakten die excuses een ander deel van de bevolking ontevreden. Zij vonden dat een comedie een satire moet toelaten. De satire geeft body aan de dynamiek van de comedie, Jia Ling moest zich dus niet excuseren.

Misschien moet die satire van Jia Ling maar als heel gewoon worden aangezien. 
Belangrijke feiten door een “satire” uitgelokt komen in feite frekwent voor. Niemand is de tragedie vergeten die in Parijs (Frankrijk) op 7 januari 2015 plaatsgreep. Terroristen vielen bij verrassing de redactie (het hoofdkwartier) van het franse karikatuurblad “Charlie Hebdo” binnen en doodden velen die er werkzaam waren. Oorzaak daarvan was de satire van de Islam profeet Mohammed door Charlie Hebdo.

Dit is wat men noemt: “Jij zegt dat jij gelijk hebt, hij zegt dat hij gelijk heeft; elkeen luistert daarbij niet naar de ander’ (letterlijk: de man zegt dat hij gelijk heeft, de vrouw zegt dat zij gelijk heeft).
 Moet er uiteindelijk aan een satire een limiet worden gesteld? Hoe sta jij daartegenover?

Maud Thiery maud.thiery@scarlet.be

A real dimensão de uma sátira

Em mandarim, a palavra “惡搞(e gao)”, inicialmente tinha o significado de “fazer piadas maliciosas”. Hoje em dia esse conceito inicial sofreu uma alteração, e a palavra é utilizada para a representação de“sátiras”.

Não muito tempo atrás, um canal de TV da Chinês, “東方衛視(dongfang weishi)”, através de seu comediante chamado “賈玲 (Jia Ling)”, fez a utilização de sátiras para “brincar”com a imagem de heroína nacional da personagem “Mulan”. O programa fez uma representação da tradicional Mulan de uma forma diferente, cômica. Essa “nova Mulan”era apenas uma pessoa que amava comer, covarde e sem ambição alguma. Após ter ido ao ar, o programa recebeu muitas criticas. Muitos espectadores criticaram o programa e o comediante, alegando que eles apresentaram de forma inapropriada a imagem da personagem e que os mesmos deveriam se desculpar por tais atos. No final, “賈玲 (Jia Ling)”se desculpou com uma postagem no microblog “Weibo” cuja atitude acabou causando o descontentamento de outra parte de espectadores, que defendiam que, por ser um programa de comedia, poderiam utilizar sátiras para representar personagens, além do mais, o programa era justamente um programa de comédia, cujo objetivo era o fazer as pessoas rir. Sendo assim, tais sátiras não apresentariam de forma alguma um conteúdo inapropriado.

Talvez, “賈玲 (Jia Ling)”não considere tais acontecimentos como algo muito grave, mas, não podemos nos esquecer do que aconteceu recentemente na França. Onde um grupo atacou o escritório do jornal satírico “Charlie Hebdo”deixando muitas pessoas mortas e diversos feridos. Comparações a parte, a tragédia foi causada após a publicação de certo conteúdo que causou muita revolta no mundo muçulmano e a consequente tragédia.

Mas e aí, onde que está essa real dimensão de uma sátira? Qual o limite? Com relação a isso, qual sua opinião?

Traduzido por:

Tiago Ismael Debald
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3 Comments

  • Perry

    惡搞需不需要底線這個問題其實真難回答。
    言論自由倡導者會說沒有人有不受觸犯的權利,惡搞則是一種大家應該接受的東西,
    我反而認為人們應該有着保守的態度對待極其敏感的事情,
    不是所有人,其實很少人,從一個哲學程度上懂得言論自由,會有暴力的報復, 因此應該先保護自己。

    對於中國惡搞這件事和其他過分的聽眾反應,絕對要堅持做自己,眾所周知這不是什麼極其敏感的事。

  • 希茜 Xixi
    希茜

    “正所謂”在一個句子中的作用是,用古人說的話或者一個成語來證明自己的觀點。可以翻譯成英文中的”This is exactly what is call…"

    公說公有理婆說婆有理,是一個諺語,意思是“Everyone has their own saying". 成語”各執一詞“也是同樣的意思。

    希望能回答你的問題。

  • Andelu

    謝謝,發布新的文章!

    我有一個問題,【正所謂,公說公有理,婆說婆有理】是什麼意思?